Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal.Its name is derived from the Spanish term platino, meaning "little silver". Bulk modulus, numerical constant that describes the elastic properties of a solid or fluid when it is under pressure on all surfaces. The applied pressure reduces the volume of a material, which returns to its original volume when the pressure is removed. Sometimes referred to as the ...

In addition to the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, there are a multitude elastic parameters which can be used in pairs to define Hooke’s law. We will not cover the entire range of parameters in this course. A table showing the relationships between the various parameter pairs can be found here. Introduction to - and definition of - Bulk Modulus Elasticity commonly used to characterize compressibility of fluids. Sponsored Links. The Bulk Modulus Elasticity - or Volume Modulus - is a material property characterizing the compressibility of a fluid - how easy a unit volume of a fluid can be changed when changing the pressure working upon it. Varying bulk modulus for higher pressures (water becomes less compressible). Fluid structure interaction: the pipeline reacts on the varying pressures and causes pressure waves itself. Applications. The water hammer principle can be used to create a simple water pump called a hydraulic ram. Leaks can sometimes be detected using water hammer.

and surface tension. The bulk modulus, which is calculated from density and speed of sound measurements, directly eﬀects fuel injection time.10 The viscosity, surface tension, and density have been used as input parameters in the simulation of the vaporization of multicomponent fuel droplets.11,12 Having

Problem: - Compute the bulk modulus of water from the following data: Initial volume = 100.0 litre, Pressure increase = 100.0 atm (1 atm = 1.013 × 10 5 Pa), Final volume = 100.5 litre. Compare the bulk modulus of water with that of air (at constant temperature). High Pressure Measurements of Density, Velocity of Sound, and Bulk Moduli of Pentane and 2-Methylbutane and Their Mixtures James C. Houck Institute for Basic Standards, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. 20234 (May 23, 1974) Dilatornetric and ultrasonic measurements were made on mixtures of pentane and 2-methylbutane

effect of gas saturation. Generating a value for the fluid bulk modulus to input into Gassmann requires that the bulk mod-uli of water K w and hydrocarbon K h are mixed according to the water saturation S w in the pore space. For seismic appli-cations the fluid bulk modulus is usually calculated using the Reuss average: (7)

Bulk Modulus is defined as the pressure increase needed to cause a given relative decrease in volume. Here we can calculate for Bulk Modulus, Pressure, Initial Volume and Change in Volume. Shear modulus of quartz: 44 Gpa: Bulk modulus of quartz: 38 Gpa: Shear modulus of clay: 6.85 Gpa: Bulk modulus of clay: 20.9 Gpa: Bulk modulus of water: 2.29 Gpa: Bulk modulus of gas: 1.11 x 10 –4 Gpa: Density of quartz: 2.65 g/cm 3: Density of clay: 2.58 g/cm 3: Density of water: 1 g/cm 3: Density of gas: 7.78 x 10 –4 g/cm 3 GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING FORMULAS A handy reference for use in geotechnical analysis and design . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1. SOIL ... When weighing in Water: Onur Akay, Ph.D. CE 204 Fluid Mechanics 11 The elasticity is often called the compressibility of the fluid. The bulk modulus of elasticity of water is approximately 2.2 GN/m 2, which corresponds to a 0.05% change in volume for a change of 1 MN/m 2 in pressure. For most purposes a liquid may be considered as incompressible.

shear modulus (G ref) is unchanged by the pore fluids, which in our case are represented by air and water. The bulk modulus of the pore space is a weighted harmonic mean of the bulk moduli of the pore constituents (Gassmann, 1951). When the two pore constituents are water and air, the bulk modulus of the pore space fluids (K fl) can be ... pressure chamber and loaded to 60 MPa hydrostatic pressure. Measured jacketed bulk modulus K is . V. jacketed P K V. Δ Δ = (7) It can be considered as the drained bulk modulus of the material, because in the dry test pore pressure in the material does not change (p = 0). After that, the jacket is removed and the confining fluid (hydraulic oil), which Pore water bulk modulus (K water x 10 9 Pa) 2.67: Hydrate bulk modulus (K h x 10 9 Pa) 7.9: Hydrate shear modulus ...

W2L2 Problems 11, 13 Bulk Stress and Bulk Modulus (French pg 57-59) → This considers changes in the total volume associated with a uniform stress in the form of a pressure change – think of a piston pushing down an air column initial volume, V initial pressure, P (before the piston pushes down) → Now increase uniform stress by ∆P by pushing

W2L2 Problems 11, 13 Bulk Stress and Bulk Modulus (French pg 57-59) → This considers changes in the total volume associated with a uniform stress in the form of a pressure change – think of a piston pushing down an air column initial volume, V initial pressure, P (before the piston pushes down) → Now increase uniform stress by ∆P by pushing

The bulk modulus has been measured in the temperature range 215–295 K up to 1.1 GPa. At atmospheric pressure, the room temperature bulk moduli are 1.97 GPa for PPG (0.4 kg·mol −1) and 1.75 GPa for PPG (4.0 kg·mol −1). These data were used to calculate the volume dependence of .

Calculate bulk modulus. The bulk modulus, K, of a liquid is the reciprocal of its compressibility. The bulk modulus for water is K = 300,000 psi. The compressibility factors for most liquids can be found in Chapters 11.2.1 and 11.2.2 of the API Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards. Higher the value of Bulk Modulus indicates that it is difficult to compress the fluid. Take water for example. Its Bulk Modulus is meaning that it requires an enormous pressure to change the volume of water by a small amount. For all practical purposes water (and many other liquids as well) is treated as being incompressible.

shear modulus (G ref) is unchanged by the pore fluids, which in our case are represented by air and water. The bulk modulus of the pore space is a weighted harmonic mean of the bulk moduli of the pore constituents (Gassmann, 1951). When the two pore constituents are water and air, the bulk modulus of the pore space fluids (K fl) can be ... The bulk modulus of water is 2.2 x 10^9 Pascals. This number increases as the water comes under more pressure. Another equation for the bulk modulus of water is 2.2. x 10 9 N/m^2, or Newtons per square meter.